Dive into the features you want to see

Abortion alcohol alcohol free america Art artist spotlight awards beer Belfast best best looking Best New Music booze Brexit British Cannabis cbd Cheese chocolate Christmas climate change closure Coffee collaboration College Green Comedy cooking counter culture counterculture Cover Story Covid Culture DC Films Derelict Ireland Direct Provision Drink drug Drugs Dublin Dublin City Council Dublin International Film Festival easter Entertainment Environment equality Fashion feature feminism Festival Film First Listen Food gaeilge Gaming General News gift gifts Gigs Graphic Design guinness harm reduction Harry Styles healthcare Heaters Heatwave heist Hennessy Homelessness Housing HSE ice cream Identity instagram Interview introduction to ireland Irish Irish coffee Irish News irishmade justice Justice League Kanye West launch Leonardo DiCaprio LGBTQ+ List Lists Literature Living Hell Lockdown Index Made by District Made in Ireland magdalene laundries meme Mental Health menu merch metoo Michelin mural Music narolane new menu New Music News nightclub nom non-binary nphet One of everything Openers opening openings Opinion Pairing pancakes Photography Pints Podcasts Politics pop up pop ups potatoes Premiere presents Pride queer Ray Fisher reservations Restaurants restrictions rugby Science Shebeen Shite Talk shitetalk signature dish Skateboarding small batch Social Media soup Space Subset sustainability tacos Taxis Technology Television The Big Grill theatre Thumbstopper tiktok To Be Irish Top 10 Tracks Top Ten Tracks Traffic Trans rights Transport Travellers trends TV Ukraine Ultimate Food Guide vegan Visual Art vodka Weed where to eat whiskey wine Women's rights Workman's youtube
General News / December 6, 2021

The Anglo-Irish treaty is 100 years old today

Irish Archives
General News / December 6, 2021

The Anglo-Irish treaty is 100 years old today

by Shamim de Brún

The Anglo-Irish Treaty is 100 years old today. The Treaty was the culmination of months of negotiations seeking formal recognition of an Irish republic independent of the British empire.

The Dublin delegation was spearheaded by Arthur Griffith, founder of Sinn Féin, and Michael Collins. The British team was led by prime minister David Lloyd George and colonial secretary Winston Churchill.

The Irish delegates signed the Treaty after being warned by Lloyd-George that refusal to do so would mean that the War of Independence would resume within days. The delegates themselves were unanimous about signing, even if each had reservations.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty gave Ireland independence but as a member of the British Commonwealth. Much like Canada. In practice, this meant that the reigning monarch of Britain was the head of our state. Famously the agreement included an oath of allegiance to this head of state. The signing broke a promise not to accept an “oath of allegiance”.

The agreement of 1921 created the Irish Provisional Government, which began to function as an independent state. It formally ended the War of Independence, set the stage for British withdrawal from most of Ireland, and was a core reason for the Irish Civil War.

Collins agreed to the treaty, but De Valera rejected it and resigned as president. The I.R.A. split, with those in favour of an independent republic siding with Eamon De Valera and those in favour of the treaty forming a National Army. During the summer of 1922. These sides descended into civil war and became the base for Fianna Fail and Fianna Gael.

This week has shown how British colonial influence continues to shift after the world’s newest republic in Barbados was declared because they removed the Queen of England as their head of state.

De Valera founded Fianna Fail and eventually did submit to the controversial oath before taking control of Dáil Eireann. In 1937 he introduced a controversial new constitution, which established the sovereign state of Ireland and relegated women to homemakers.

An Post today launched new stamps to celebrate this centenary. In commemoration, Colin Murphy’s play The Treaty toured this week. ANU Productions will stage the Treaty Debates in full from December 22.

Elsewhere on District: 10 tracks that defined rap in Ireland in 2021